¿Por qué estudiar ciencias sociales?

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¿Por qué estudiar ciencias sociales?

30
Mar,2018

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A partir de la invitación de la Secretaría de Investigación de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales se me propuso integrar el panel que brindaría una charla a los ingresantes 2018 sobre los 100 años de la Reforma Universitaria y las Ciencias Sociales. Se me pidió particularmente hablar sobre por qué deberían estudiarlas y mi experiencia personal.

Las ciencias sociales históricamente han sido consideradas las “vagas” a diferencia de sus primas las “duras”. La opinión pública las toma como menos serias en comparación con otras. Incluso en la fundación de las ciencias sociales los métodos de investigación, de validación provenían de las ciencias duras. También, los medios de comunicación contribuyen a reforzar este pensamiento. Por ejemplo, cuando les hablo de un científico ¿Qué es lo primero que piensan? ¿Cómo lo imaginan? Seguramente es una persona con una bata blanca, hombre, en un laboratorio.

Campaña de desprestigio

Esta idea se plasmó el año pasado, cuando hubo una operación mediática de desprestigio de las ciencias sociales basada en información parcializada. En septiembre de 2017 un grupo de jóvenes científicos tomó el edificio del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). La medida buscaba visibilizar el problema que estaba enfrentando la ciencia.

Los científicos denunciaban el incumplimiento de dos puntos básicos que se habían firmado, durante el cambio de gestión, y que implicaba la continuidad laboral de unos 500 investigadores. Había habido una promesa de la gestión de Mauricio Macri de llevar el presupuesto en CyT del 0,7% al 1,5% del PBI.

Cuando los investigadores doctorales y posdoctoral terminaron sus becas y postularon para acceder a la carrera de investigador de carrera no pudieron hacerlo. Hubo una protesta de los científicos y se llegó una solución parcial. En esos días, mientras tanto, se llevó adelante una campaña de desprestigio y uno de los campos que mayor embestida tuvo fueron las ciencias sociales

Mientras surgía este conflicto muchos medios nacionales pusieron en discusión la inversión en Ciencia y Tecnología que había sido impulsada por el gobierno anterior. Incluso un medio publicó una nota llamada “Las 20 peores investigaciones del CONICET”, un ejemplo del desprestigio del trabajo de los científicos.

Entre los párrafos uno destacaba. “Para tener dimensión del descontrol en el Conicet: en los últimos años 810 ‘investigadores’ presentaron papers sobre el peronismo, 480 sobre los Kirchner y 148 sobre Marx. En comparación: actualmente, sólo 40 investigadores buscan la cura contra el cáncer. El presupuesto del Conicet aumentará un 47%: esa plata se utilizará para más estudios científicos de chantas y vivos que escriben sobre Perón y Marx y no para el verdadero desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología argentina.”

Finalmente, la nota decía que en el último año, de la masa de 25 mil personas que trabajan en el Conicet presentaron sólo 90 patentes científicas y cerraba con una enumeración de las 20 “investigaciones científicas” más bizarras entre las que ranqueaban:

  • Cruella Devil: mirando Disney con mis alumnos.
  • Investigación sobre el Rey León
  • Los manteros senegaleses ante el allanamiento en Once
  • La difusión social del fútbol en Rosario
  • Prácticas de aliento entre hinchadas del fútbol en Argentina

Desmitificar las ciencias sociales

Hace algunas semanas un investigador del CONICET eligió su cuenta de Twitter para enfrentar alguno de los argumentos que cuestionan las investigaciones en ciencias sociales que surgieron en el gobierno anterior.

Jorge es investigador y docente y trabaja con nonotecnología farmacéutina (digo esto para reforzar la credibilidad del especialista). Entre los argumentos que esgrimía se encontraba que el Conicet garantiza que haya pertinencia en los temas a investigar y que estén a cargo de investigadores idóneos. Tomó una investigación al azar, que hizo un trabajo sobre El Rey León.

La investigación, llamada Alejandra Martínez, es posdoctora en Sociología y se dedicó por lo menos de 10 años a formarse y especializarse. Trabaja estudiando cómo se muestran las cuestiones de género y de familia en productos infantiles. El tema de investigación para el que eligió la película es “Representaciones sociales en el cine infantil. Nacionalidad, raza, cultura y clase en El Rey León”.

En el paper se analizan los mensajes que les llegan a los chicos a través de las imágenes. Se pregunta qué es una familia “normal”, qué cosas son normales que se hagan, qué hacen normalmente los varones y qué las mujeres. Un descubrimiento que destaca en el paper es que para doblar a personajes marginales, que en la versión original los hacen actores negros, en la versión española le ponen acento mexicano.

Con lo cual, la hiena no tenía que corresponderse con ‘un descendiente africano’ sino con un inmigrante pobre. Esta fue una decisión de los realizadores. Transmitió un mensaje. Fue una de las películas más importantes para Disney y para la generación de por ese entonces.

Jorge agregaba que no me encontraba ninguna persona de las que critica que el Conicet haya financiado esa investigación que haya leído el trabajo. Y destacó que gracias a aportes como este es que un Estado puede decidir que producir una alternativa audiovisual para los más chicos, que puede promover “otras” representaciones .

Otra cosa que destaca la investigadora es que si bien es una película de animales, los personas piensan y sus conflictos son humanos. Si bien la película transcurre en África no hay nada africano. El rey Mufasa y su hijo (cuando éste llega a la vida adulta) comparten rasgos físicos, sociales y conductuales: son atléticos, ágiles y fuertes. Su piel es clara, su melena es de color castaño rojizo, su rostro ancho y de líneas suaves. Ambos son monógamos y heterosexuales, y forman familias típicas, compuestas por madre, padre e hijo. Reunen las características de los WASP (White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant), es decir, blancos, anglosajones y protestantes.

Scar, el villano de la historia, presenta rasgos raciales y culturales diferentes: su melena es negra, y sus facciones, angulosas y delgadas, lo diferencian claramente de su hermano Mufasa y su sobrino Simba. Scar tiene rasgos de reminiscencia árabe (Modenessi, 2005). Su modo de hablar, sin embargo, parece característicamente europeo.

Toda cuestión vinculada con la estructura social y el manejo de los recursos queda en manos del Ciclo de La Vida, concepto que remite a la famosa “Mano Invisible” de Adam Smith, y por el cual se naturaliza y se libera de toda carga moral un sistema en el cual la supervivencia de unos requiere de la muerte de otros. Cuando Mufasa explica a su hijo el Ciclo, le dice que sus propios cuerpos, al morir, alimentarán las pasturas, que a su vez alimentan a los antílopes que ellos mismos comen.

Finalmente, a la investigadora argumenta los imaginarios representados llegan a las audiencias, niños y niñas, a las que va destinado, ven en los héroes y villanos representaciones estereotipadas de sus propios vecinos. Construyen ideas sobre la moral de los grupos sociales y étnicos representados en la trama, y expectativas sobre su conducta.

¿Por qué le pasa esto a las ciencias sociales?

Este fenómeno de desprestigio a las ciencias sociales no es una particularidad argentina. Sucede en todo el mundo. Pero ¿por qué pasa? Las ciencias sociales tienen en su espalda una gran mochila. Como dijimos anterior mente no se cuestionan las ciencias “duras” y esto pasa porque dominan un tema que es más complejos o no está al alcance de la mayoría de las personas. El dominio de un saber desconocido para el resto no se puede enfrentar. Por ejemplo, discutirle a un medico sobre medicina es impensado, o un biólogo, o a un ingeniero en petróleo. Pero a un un trabajador social, un historiador o a un licenciado en educación se le animan más. Ni hablar a un comunicador.

Esto se da porque las ciencias sociales estudian al hombre y su relación con el medio, con la sociedad. Es decir, son más fáciles de criticar porque todos estamos estamos inmiscuido de manera directa en el objeto de estudio. No quiere decir que en las otras ciencias no, pero lo que se nos dice es que en las ciencias sociales el objeto de estudio es el hombre. A diferencia de la biología donde el objeto de estudio a los seres vivos, o la bioquímica que estudia composición química de biomoléculas y biosistemas. Incluso la terminología es distinta. Alejada de la cotidianeidad.

aceptor de electrones. Especie que acepta electrones de un donador durante una reacción.

acervo de aminoácidos. Aminoácidos de disponibilidad inmediata que se encuentran en un organismo para su uso en procesos metabólicos.

ácido. Molécula que puede donar iones hidrógeno.

Y si son comunicadores ni les cuento. Levanten la mano los que son ingresantes de Comunicación Social. En mi campo, la comunicación social, diariamente nos enfrentamos con esta resistencia porque a diferencia de Historia, o Letras, hay dominio de un saber que el “prejuicio respeta”. Porque si bien a uno le puede gustar la historia, no se podría a discutir con un profe sobre la Revolución Rusa; o con un licenciado en Letras sobre El Quijote. Pero con un comunicador sí. Porque las personas se comunican todo el tiempo.

La cantidad de kirchneristas con los que he tenido que discutir la idea de que perdieron la elección porque Clarín (y Macri) engañó a la gente. Apelando a una de las primer teorías de la comunicación que es la Teoría de la Aguja Hipodérmica, que habla de que los medios de comunicación inyectan su mensajes sobre la masa -que son las audiencias- sin poderse defender. Esta teoría fue acuñada a principio del 1900 y buscaba dar respuesta a los fenómenos de la propaganda de la Primera y la Segunda Guerra Mundial y después quedó muy superada. Así que como verán todavía a los comunicadores tenemos un gran desafío en revalorizar nuestro campo, nuestra profesión.

En fin, los mitos que las acompañan son variopintos. Como creo que la comunicación es un servicio, les traigo aquí es un listado de argumentos para contrarrestar estos mitos. Por ejemplo:

Mito 1. “No tienen matemática” para indicar que no hay conocimientos “duros” o “complejos” que incorporar. Junto con este mito suele acompañar la frese: “son fáciles”. Respuesta: Estudiar ciencias sociales no implica ser menos inteligente. Al contrario, implica una capacidad de reflexión constante sobre acontecimientos que se producen todos los días, y en los que estamos inmiscuidos, con el adicional de poder hacerlo de la forma más objetiva posible.

Mito 2. “Los que estudian ciencias sociales son vagos” se le puede agregar el “porrero” y “revoltosos” o “conflictivos”. Respuesta: Los estudiantes de ciencias sociales tenemos una enorme curiosidad. Queremos saber por qué las cosas son como son. Se le puede incorporar el campo específico de cada disciplina. Por ejemplo, los comunicadores pueden decir: Nos interesa conocer los procesos y fenómenos de comunicación. Los de historia: “el tiempo pasado y su relación con el presente”; los de Geografía: “La relación entre las comunidades y el medio en el que viven”.

Mito 3. “Está lleno de política”. Respuesta: Es cierto que estamos más politizados y que tenemos mayor participación en la vida política pero esto no implica una desventaja. La Facultad de Humanidades tienen algunos reglamentos más progresistas comparado con el resto de las otras Facultades de esta misma Universidad. Lo estudiantes suele conocer más sus derechos y el Centro de Estudiante está más atento a las necesidades de los alumnos para transmitírselo a las autoridades.

Mito 4. “Son carreras para mujeres”. Respuesta: Son carreras que uno estudia por vocación y la vocación no distingue género. “Tu comentario cuestiona la masculinidad de los hombres e invisibiliza la productividad de las mujeres”. Se puede agregar “muerte al macho”, “fin de patriarcado”, “vos porque sos un misógino”.

Mito 5. “No sirven para nada”. Respuesta: Los conocimientos sociales son imprescindibles para la creación de políticas sociales y la construcción de una sociedad más justa.

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